Cardinal (Catholic Church)

They wear also the red scarlet biretta, that was granted to them, probably, by Paul II With the revision of the Code of Canon Law promulgated in by Pope Benedict XV , only those who are already priests or bishops may be appointed cardinals.

Maria degli Angell, S. For a time this power was assigned exclusively to the cardinal bishops, but in the Third Lateran Council restored the right to the whole body of cardinals.

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I produced 5 priests because there were heretics nearby. Any censure, canonical, or otherwise threatened, or any odious provision is applicable to cardinals only when it is expressly so provided C.

Therefore, since the thirteenth century, the cardinals have had their own treasury F. Age and treachery will defeat youth and skill every time. First, Benedict changed conclave rules to require a two-thirds majority to select a pope.

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Angelo in Pescheria, S. A cardinal who is not a bishop is still entitled to wear and use the episcopal vestments and other pontificalia episcopal regalia: Marc Ouellet. X, For example, in the 16th century, Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest. That the members of the chapter capitulars, canons were the only counsellors and auxiliaries of the bishop helped to round out the position of the former, and to unite them as against the other clergy of the cathedral, all the more so as this right of the capitulars to co-government of the diocese partly by counsel, consilium , and partly by consent, consensus was constitutional and recognized by the canon law.

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They enjoy all the privileges of bishops. Antitrait Warmonger.

Total War How to best use priests? But as the cardinals formed a college, and the collegiate rights were equally shared by all, the cardinal-priests and cardinal-deacons claimed the same rank as the cardinal-bishops, while the latter were quite willing to see their colleagues placed on their own higher plane.

Croce in Gerusalemrne, S. In the Middle Ages, therefore, the cardinals should have numbered fifty-three or fifty-four. Cardinal deacons are given title to one of these deaconries. Quartalschrift", LXXX , sqq. By the 8th century the Roman cardinals constituted a privileged class among the Roman clergy. It is otherwise with foreign bishops created cardinals; they retain their dioceses and are not obliged to reside at Rome.

Until , it was possible for someone who was not a priest, but only in minor orders , to become a cardinal see "lay cardinals", below , but they were enrolled only in the order of cardinal deacons.

Priest (Medieval II: Total War)

At the beginning of the next secret consistory takes place the ceremony known as the "opening of the mouth" aperitio oris , and at the close of the same consistory the "closing of the mouth" clausura etis , symbolizing their duties to keep the secrets of their office and to give wise counsel to the pope.

During the Western Schism , many cardinals were created by the contending popes. Some turns after excommunication one of my priests was made cardinal. Before the consistory, moreover, were treated the important questions that arose concerning the properties of the Roman Church bona ecclesice romance , the papal fiefs, the Crusades, and such grave political matters as the settlement of disputed royal elections, the approbation of newly-elected kings, and the deposition of princes.

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